Dates as data
OverviewTeaching: 20 min
Exercises: 5 minQuestions
How are dates handled by computers?Objectives
Describe how dates are stored and formatted in spreadsheets.
Describe the advantages of alternative date formatting in spreadsheets.
Demonstrate best practices for entering dates in spreadsheets.
Dates in spreadsheets are stored in one column. Whilst this seems the most natural way to record dates, it actually is not a good practice. A spreadsheet application will display the dates in seemingly correct way (for the human eye) but how it actually handles and stores the dates may be problematic.
In particular, please remember that functions that are valid for a given spreadsheet program (be it LibreOffice, Microsoft Excel, OpenOffice.org, Gnumeric, etc.) are usually guaranteed to be compatible only within the same family of products. If you will later need to export the data and need to conserve the timestamps you are better off handling them using one of the solutions discussed below.
Challenge: pulling month, day and year out of dates
- In the
Datestab of your Excel file we summarized training data from 2015. There’s a
- Let’s extract month, day and year from the date to three new columns. For this we can use the built in Excel functions
=MONTH(A2) =DAY(A2) =YEAR(A2)
(Make sure the new column is formatted as a number and not as a date. Change the function to correspond to each row - i.e., =MONTH(A3), =DAY(A3), =YEAR(A3) for the next row.
You can see that even though you wanted the year to be 2015 for all entries, your spreadsheet program interpreted two entries as 2017, the year the data was entered, not the year of the workshop.
Preferred date format
Note: Excel is unable to parse dates from before 1899-12-31, and will thus leave these untouched. If you’re mixing historic data from before and after this date, Excel will translate only the post-1900 dates into its internal format, thus resulting in mixed data. If you’re working with historic data, be extremely careful with your dates!
Excel also entertains a second date system, the 1904 date system, as the default in Excel for Macintosh. This system will assign a different serial number than the 1900 date system. Because of this, dates must be checked for accuracy when exporting data from Excel (look for dates that are ~4 years off).
Data formats in spreadsheets
Spreadsheet programs have numerous “useful features” which allow them to “handle” dates in a variety of ways.
But these ‘features’ often allow ambiguity to creep into your data. Ideally, data should be as unambiguous as possible.
Dates stored as integers
The first thing you need to know is that Excel stores dates as a number - see the last column in the above figure. Essentially, it counts the days from a default of December 31, 1899, and thus stores July 2, 2014 as the serial number 41822.
(But wait. That’s the default on my version of Excel. We’ll get into how this can introduce problems down the line later in this lesson. )
This serial number thing can actually be useful in some circumstances. By using the above functions we can easily add days, months or years to a given date. Say you had a sampling plan where you needed to sample every thirty seven days. In another cell, you could type:
And it would return
because it understands the date as a number
41822 + 37 = 41859
which Excel interprets as August 8, 2014. It retains the format (for the most
part) of the cell that is being operated upon, (unless you did some sort of
formatting to the cell before, and then all bets are off). Month and year
rollovers are internally tracked and applied.
Note Adding years and months and days is slightly trickier because we need to make sure that we are adding the amount to the correct entity.
- First we extract the single entities (day, month or year)
- We can then add values to do that
- Finally the complete date string is reconstructed using the
As for dates, times are handled in a similar way; seconds can be directly added but to add hour and minutes we need to make sure that we are adding the quantities to the correct entities.
Which brings us to the many different ways Excel provides in how it displays dates. If you refer to the figure above, you’ll see that there are many, MANY ways that ambiguity creeps into your data depending on the format you chose when you enter your data, and if you’re not fully cognizant of which format you’re using, you can end up actually entering your data in a way that Excel will badly misinterpret.
What happens to the dates in the
datestab of our workbook if we save this sheet in Excel (in
csvformat) and then open the file in a plain text editor (like TextEdit or Notepad)? What happens to the dates if we then open the
csvfile in Excel?
- Click to the
datestab of the workbook and double-click on any of the values in the
Date collectedcolumn. Notice that most of the dates display with the year 2015 and two are 2017.
File -> Save Asin Excel and in the drop down menu for file format select
CSV UTF-8 (Comma delimited) (.csv). Click
- You will see a pop-up that says “This workbook cannot be saved in the selected file format because it contains multiple sheets.” Choose
Save Active Sheet.
- Navigate to the file in your finder application. Right click and select
Open With. Choose a plain text editor application and view the file. Notice that the dates display as month/day without any year information.
- Now right click on the file again and open with Excel. Notice that the dates display with the current year, not 2015. As you can see, exporting data from Excel and then importing it back into Excel fundamentally changed the data once again!
Advantages of Alternative Date Formatting
Storing dates as YEAR, MONTH, DAY
Storing dates in YEAR, MONTH, DAY format helps remove this ambiguity. Let’s look at this issue a bit closer.
For instance this is a spreadsheet representing insect counts that were taken every few days over the summer of 2001, and things went something like this:
If Excel was to be believed, this person had been collecting bugs in 2010, 2014, 2015 and 2017 even though it is stated that the data was gathered in the summer of 2001.
Entering dates in one cell is helpful but due to the fact that the spreadsheet programmes may interpret and save the data in different ways (doing that somewhat behind the scenes), there is a better practice.
In dealing with dates in spreadsheets, we recommend separating date data into separate fields (day, month, year), which will eliminate any chance of ambiguity.
Storing dates as YEAR, DAY-OF-YEAR
There is also another option: You can also store dates as year, and day of year (DOY). Why? Because depending on your question, this might be what’s useful to you, and there is practically no possibility for ambiguity creeping in.
Statistical models often incorporate year as a factor, to account for year-to-year variation, and DOY can be used to measure the passage of time within a year.
So, can you convert all your dates into DOY format? Well, in Excel, here’s a handy dandy guide:
Storing dates as a single string
The best alternative is to convert the date string
into a single string using the
YYYYMMDDhhmmss format, ISO 8601, the international date standard.
For example the date
March 24, 2015 17:25:35 would
YYYY: the full year, i.e. 2015 MM: the month, i.e. 03 DD: the day of month, i.e. 24 hh: hour of day, i.e. 17 mm: minutes, i.e. 25 ss: seconds, i.e. 35
Such strings will be correctly sorted in ascending or descending order, and by knowing the format they can then be correctly processed by the receiving software.
Excel is notoriously bad at handling dates.
Treating dates as multiple pieces of data rather than one makes them easier to handle and exchange between programs.