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Tokens in Context: Concordance Lists


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Exercises: 0 min
  • What is a concordance list?

  • How can a concordance list be created for a particular search term?

  • Understand what a concordance list is.

  • Learn how to create one.

Concordance list for a text collection

Next, we will display concordances for a particular token, i.e. all contexts a particular token appears in. We can do this using the Text class in NLTK’s text package. We can represent our list of lowercased tokens in the document collection loaded previously using the Text class. The concordance list of a token can be displayed using the concordance() method on this class as shown below.

from nltk.text import Text
t = Text(lower_india_tokens)
Displaying 20 of 20 matches:
s of age , a sweeper , who married a woman who had leprosy , and at the age of
e of sitabu , aged 40 , a muhammadan woman . her grand- father and father were
ung man deliberately married a leper woman , and became himself a leper at the
contrary . in no . 6 a man marries a woman whose grandfather and father had bee
 lepers . in no . 10 a man marries a woman whose father had died of leprosy . i
applies to these cases . in no . 2 a woman marries a man whose father and elder
n in the case of a man who marries a woman of notoriously leper family . in no
toriously leper family . in no . 5 a woman marries a man whose elder brother wa
d continued to cohabit with a native woman after she had been attacked with lep
isen from intermarriage of a man and woman in both of whom leprosy was heredita
s a leper ; he is now married to the woman , and they both live in the asylum .
een accompanied by a healthy looking woman , and by this means , although all h
editary transmission . in one case a woman got the disease about two years afte
 passed their thirtieth year , one a woman about 25 years of age , and the seve
 fracture of femur in middle third . woman well nourished and skin healthy , no
 ; had a brother with same disease . woman recovered and able to move about ; o
re or less related to each other . a woman got leprosy first from a leprous hus
s village assured me that before the woman returned home after her husband 's d
against it . this case was that of a woman with two leprous children , aged abo
ions had been lepers , who married a woman with tubercular leprosy , he being a

In the output for the next bit of code which creates a concordance list for the word “he”, we can see that there are many more results in the list than displayed on screen (Displaying 25 of 170 matches). The concordance() method only prints the first 25 results by default (or less if there are less).

t = Text(lower_india_tokens)
Displaying 25 of 170 matches:
leprosy treated by gurjun oil , which he was able to watch for a length of tim
 diminished . during these two months he gained three pounds in weight , which
does not seem much , considering that he did no work and was fairly well fed o
se from jail on the 23rd january 1876 he was again suffering from the sores th
n 5th and died on 20th october 1875 . he was seriously ill when he was brought
ober 1875 . he was seriously ill when he was brought to the hospital , and cou
itted on the 8th september 1875 , and he went home of his own accord on 20th d
is own accord on 20th december 1875 . he was much improved under treat- ment b
evalence of leprosy in the district , he had had but very few opportunities of
even half this number . the natives , he says , call every chronic skin diseas
in the legs , the feet and the ears . he has perfect taste , hearing , sight a
te laboured under it . the leper says he was quite free from leprosy until he
 he was quite free from leprosy until he associated with this man and took din
prosy of 15 years ' standing . states he had first gonorrha , then syphillis ,
been affected 6 years ; was well when he married . had two children who died ,
ve of the territory beyond the hubb . he had lost some parts of his hands and
 feet previous to his incarceration . he was treated with large doses of iodid
ease be removed . dr. bloomfield says he sent two interesting specimens of thi
ant medical college museum , but that he never heard of them after , nor did h
e never heard of them after , nor did he discover them in the museum when he v
d he discover them in the museum when he visited it afterwards . should the di
er and elder sister were lepers , and he himself became a leper at 30 years of
. his elder brother was a leper , and he himself became a leper at 32 . his wi
one year after she was affected , and he suffered from leprosy . no . 7.-the c
ied . afterwards , at the age of 43 , he him- self was attacked with leprosy .

You can specify the number of lines using an additional lines parameter, e.g.:


Task: Create a new concordance list

Create a concordance list for a different search term, e.g. the word “great” or choose your own.



Key Points

  • A concordance list is a list of all contexts in which a particular token appears in a corpus or text.

  • A concordance list can be created using the concordance() method of the Text` class in NLTK.